Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds of the Russian Academy of Sciences (INEOS RAS) was founded in 1954. A major contribution to its creation was made by a distinguished scientist, the president of the Academy of Sciences of USSR, Aleksandr N. Nesmeyanov (1899–1980), who developed organoelement chemistry as an important scientific discipline which connects organic and inorganic chemistry. A. N. Nesmeyanov headed the Institute for 26 years. Afterwards the Institute was leaded by academicians Aleksandr V. Fokin (1980–1988), Mark E. Volpin (1989–1996), and Yurii N. Bubnov (1996–2013). Since 2013 the director of INEOS RAS is academician Aziz M. Muzafarov.
Nowadays, INEOS RAS is a major research institute with more than 600 full staff and 500 scientific staff members, inclduing 255 candidates of science and 84 doctors of science.
INEOS RAS is highly regarded both in Russia and all over the world as an organoelement and polymer chemistry research center. Many renowned scientists who founded and developed new directions in organic, organoelement, polymer, and physical chemistry worked at INEOS RAS: K. A. Andrianov, M. E. Volpin, I. L. Knunyants, M. I. Kabachnik, V. V. Korshak, I. V. Obreimov, O. A. Reutov, corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences M. Yu. Antipin, D. N. Kursanov, T. A. Mastryukova, Yu. T. Struchkov, R. Kh. Freidlina, Prof. A. I. Kitaigorodskii, and many others. Academicians Yu. N. Bubnov, I. L. Eremenko, A. M. Muzafarov, A. R. Khokhlov and corresponding member of RAS E. N. Nifant'ev are now working at the Institute.
From the very beginning, synthetic and theoretical works in the field of organoelement and polymer chemistry were naturally integrated with the physical and physicochemical studies. Therefore, research activity of many laboratories and groups at INEOS is carried out at the intersection of several branches of chemistry and physics. A. N. Nesmeyanov called this approach growing points of modern scientific and technological progress. Besides common boundary disciplines (such as the chemistry of organoelement compounds), the vast experience allowed the creation of a range of new trends which character is defined by a unique combination of organic, organoelement, coordination, and physical chemistry as well as the chemistry of polymers and natural products.